Climate Modification and Volcanoes

Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

Hispanic Tax Franchise Marketing That Makes Sense!

The Hispanic market is one of the most lucrative markets in America, yet many businesses have failed to substantially tap this market for one reason – a lack of understanding. Tri Tax understands the Hispanic market because their roots are in catering to just such a demographic. Can this knowledge help you succeed? Absolutely.

Incredible Potential

The Hispanic market is the largest minority market in the entire country, and it is growing exponentially. Every year, this market increases significantly, and represents a larger pool of potential consumer dollars. In fact, the Hispanic market is not just the fastest growing minority group in the US, but the fastest growing consumer market of any kind. The Hispanic population currently sits at 40 million, and is increasing all the time. Furthermore, the economic purchasing power of Hispanics is increasing steadily, and recently topped $1 trillion for the first time.

Incredibly, this is a market that many retailers are unable or unwilling to cater to. Much of this comes down to effective communication. Tri Tax understands the Hispanic market and have developed a easy to follow system to help tap into this incredible pool of potential.

Know Your Audience

Knowing your potential consumer base inside and out is one of the most basic and fundamental aspects of business. In order to generate business, you need to market yourself. But in order to successfully market yourself, you need to craft an effective message. What constitutes an effective message? It depends on who you are trying to reach, which is why you need to understand the market you are attempting to reach before you begin this process.

Tri Tax does not exclusively target a Hispanic audience. But we refuse to alienate a huge potential consumer base because of a lack of effective communication. And this communication goes beyond just speaking Spanish or putting out a Spanish advertisement. Communication boils down to understand the needs of your consumers, and then providing qualified solutions to these needs.

The Tri Tax Advantage

At Tri Tax, we have achieved and subsequently sustained a huge operational advantage over our direct competition by incorporating the Hispanic market into our marketing and business plans. This is an advantage that gets passed directly on to our franchisers. By sharing our knowledge and expertise, we will help you sustain this advantage over your direct competitors.

By instituting a few simple operation contingencies, you can give your franchise a significant boost, and give a boost to your chances of long-term success in the process. To learn more about Tri Tax Franchises, and what we can offer you, please visit us online at

Bank Exam Preparation Is Incomplete Without Current Affairs

Banking industry offers the jobs which are high in demand amongst the youth. All its jobs are highly responsible in nature and demand respect and stature. Their acceptance of students from all streams and time flexibility makes these jobs highly coveted. However, to become a part of the banking industry is not an easy task. It all depends on how well you prepare for the bank exam which is highly competitive in nature. The question paper includes questions which have a high standard. Inclusion of current affairs of India in the bank exams make the question paper even tougher to crack. One can study hard for 2-3 weeks and prepare the syllabus thoroughly but current affairs cannot be achieved in one night. If you are not in contact with the current affairs on a regular basis, your chances of clearing any bank exam are close to zero. All the exams conducted by the banking sector demand knowledge of the current affairs of India. Another such exam called, the CWE to be conducted in 2011 would recruit candidates on a large scale based on their current affair knowledge and textual knowledge. The jobs offered by the banking sector are vast. They all provide a healthy income and extra exciting incentives. There is no reason for a candidate not to be attracted to the banking sector, especially if one looks at the immense success it has made in the recent past years. Thus, every year, thousands of candidates appear for the exams but only a few are selected. The rejected ones are often confused as to where did they go wrong. They had prepared enough but were not selected, thus blaming the banking sector for -biased” recruitments. However, it is their lack of knowledge that leads them to failure. If you are planning to appear for any bank exam like the upcoming CWE in 2011, you should cement it in your mind, that you cannot clear the exam without a sound knowledge of the current affairs of India. All you need to do is read the newspapers daily and jot down important points so that you are able to retain the information for a longer period of time. It seems like a tough task but once you get into the habit, it would seem interesting and you would eventually gain interest. Most importantly, it would be very beneficial for you not merely to appear for the bank exam but also to stay updated and aware. Reading the newspapers would not do you any harm. Rather, they would be helpful for you in your personal life as well as for your academic achievements. If you want to prepare for bank exams, it would be incomplete without a sound knowledge of the current affairs.

To read latest Current affairs read and at jagranjos

Ethical Money Makes The World Go Round

Whatever your resources, socially responsible investment (SRI) can help you fulfil your dreams, and make the world a better place. SRI means you can channel your money away from industries that contribute to the destruction of the environment, companies employing sweatshop and child labour, business involved in animal experimentation and corporation that support repressive and brutal regimes

Like any investor a socially responsible one wants to see a sound return on their investment but they also want to invest in companies that demonstrate social and environmental principles. Even though SRI means limiting choice in types of investment it has not led to any systematic under performance in stocks, in fact it have done as well as or better than others on the market.

SRI developed in the USA as a response by concerned Quakers and other people disgusted that their investments were supporting the arms trade and the Vietnam war. Since then SRI has become a growing market within the UK, and is increasing at about 34% per year Socially responsible investors include institutions such as non profit organisations, Churches, trade unions, universities and individuals from all walks of life. What they have in common is a commitment to channelling their money towards investment that reflects their personal ethics and values. You don’t have to have lots of money to be a socially responsible investor although a minimum commitment is like with most funds about 50 pounds a month.

There are two main strategies to SRI: Avoidance Screening – choosing not to invest in industries for example, those with discriminatory employment practices, business activities with repressive governments, poor environmental records, animal testing, weapons contractors and the tobacco industry.Affirmative Screening – Actively seeking out investments in activities to support such as alternative energy and natural foods, companies that show commitment to their workers, communities and the environment.

Davinos Greeno works for the and directory that lists 100s of Organic and Ethical Companies and we also have for you to read or publish.

Berkeley CA Homes for Sale Market Comparison Report (December 2009 vs. December 2008)

We analyze several housing market indicators in order to present an in-depth breakdown of Berkeley Ca Homes for Sale Market comparing December 2008 to December 2009.

Summary of Key Points

Berkeley Ca Homes for Sale market suffered a decrease in home prices however that acted as an incentive for buyers leading to a significant increase in home sales

Median Sales Price (-8.23%), Median Days on Market (-26.86%), and Number of Units Sold (30.77%)

Big Picture: Out of 20 cities analyzed in the East Bay, Berkeley was one of 12 cities that saw a decrease in median home prices and Berkeley buyers used that to their advantage snapping up 30.77% more homes in Dec 09

Berkeley Ca Homes for Sale

The city of Berkeley experienced an 8.23% drop in median sales price from last year going down from $751,333 (Dec. 08) to $689,505 (Dec. 09). In the city of Berkeleys case, the decrease in median sales price spurred a dramatic reduction in median days on market and a comparable increase in number of units sold. Median days on market for a house in the city of Berkeley for December 08 was 43 days compared to 31 days in December 09 and number of units sold have increased from 39 units in Dec 08 to 51 units in Dec 09. It is apparent that the $60,000 drop in home prices caused a ripple in the Berkeley housing market. The drop in prices was enough to cut median days on market by 26.86% and alternatively drove up sales 30.77% by attracting home buyers with lower prices. A similar trend as Berkeley can be seen when analyzing home data for neighboring cities Walnut Creek and Castro Valley. Walnut Creek ca homes for sale saw their median prices slashed by almost 20% but like Berkeley, that in turn caused a drop in median days on market (23.08%) and an increase in number of units sold (5.26%). Same for Castro Valley ca homes for sale drop in median home prices (8.01%) however a decrease in median days on market (46.08%) coupled with an increase in the number of units sold (26.32%).

Hire a Reputable Accounting Firm to Make the Process of Corporation Tax Return Easy

Topics related to corporation tax, bookkeeping, accounting, VAT, etc. can, at first glance, be somewhat difficult to understand even for individuals with an educational background in finance. These intelligent individuals would have to utilize all their cerebral powers to comprehend the abovementioned topics. For laymen, the task of understanding, these financial topics is even more complicated. Let us look at a topic like corporation tax. Corporation Tax signifies tax on a companys taxable profit. For example, in a nation like Britain, company tax return contains completed Corporation Tax Return (CT 600) and the yearly monetary documents and accounts, which support the tax estimation. Every limited company has to present this Corporation Tax Return to Britains Inland Revenue Department (IRD). If you are the owner of such a company, you would be aware that your company needs to shell out taxes in advance.

All companies must maintain a sufficient catalog of their transactions. This is necessary to produce a correct Corporation Tax Return. If you are an employee of such a company, you need to preserve the companys tax records. These tax records must have original sales receipts, accounting records and purchase expenditures. Also, what is important for you to understand is that, if a company presents the CT 600 Corporation Tax Return form without the accounts, then it is considered that the company hasnt presented company tax return at all.

The paying of tax by a company is obligatory. In the absence of this paying, there could be unpleasant repercussions. If you are a companys owner, you may not like to adhere to corporation tax return. You may have observed that numerous companies are unhappy with taxation rules as the companies desire to shell out less money in order to increase their profits. It is important for you to be aware that some companies are charged excessively while the other companies are undercharged. This can lead to an embarrassing situation. Therefore, it is essential that you hire the services of any trustworthy accounting firm.

The accounting firm will monitor your companys existing financial status. The accounting firm will also study what your company has done so far in tax-related matters. Filling the Corporation Tax Return form can be quite complicated. You must appoint an accounting firm that is experienced with this task. These websites mention that the accounting firms utilize contemporary approaches to such tax issues. They also offer online accounting service at affordable prices.

If you have decided to establish a small-scale business, one of the acts that you need to commit is to hire a reputable small business accountant. The small business accountant will provide advice to you during different phases of your business. You should opt for an accountant, who gives you personalized attention. There are websites of accounting agencies, which have accountants at your service 24/7. Thus, you should choose the company that exhibits professionalism and is meticulous in its execution of the abovementioned tasks.

Forex Grid Trading

Unusual as it is, the Forex grid trading system still entices many traders to come and give it a try. Why? Well, this is because of the significant rewards that one could get if they were able to do it properly. Simply put, buying and selling the same currency as a means of creating a hedge isnt the easiest thing in the world to accomplish. Not to mention the fact that if you have no idea what youre doing, it can also be a very high risk investment. Now, there are many different things that a trader would require if they are intent on giving this type of trading a try. The first thing youll need is a brokers account that would allow the different types of transactions. However, this can be a bit tricky in some places of the world that actually prohibits traders from having to buy and sell transactions open at the same time. This also extends to their ability to place target orders and other entry which would activate automatically at predetermined price levels.

Once you get the account, there is another challenge to overcome. This would be your own mindset and combating boredom. Forex traders or day traders very rarely allow any deals to be active beyond a specific number of days. However, when it comes to Forex grid trading, you would need to make use of relatively large size grids which are typically around 150 or 400 pips as this can help lower any risks. However this means that this grid system might take up to a week before it triggers a transaction and a month after that before you can get a result. As you can see, if youre used to doing things quickly and efficiently then the waiting period might make you want to simply lose interest. Just do not make the mistake of reducing your grids size in order to shorten the waiting time because doing that can increase the risk level.

So there you have it, just some of the things that every trader must know about Forex grid trading before giving it a try. Remember, do your research well so youll be prepared for any challenges that lie ahead.

Take the Option Trading Services of a Knowledgeable Option Trader

Stock trading is very fast becoming one of the most cherished way of investing one’s hard earned money. It is important thus that the individual who is thinking about investing his money into stock trading gets the appropriate guidance in this regards. Among all the stock trading avenues available, one of the most favoured one is the option trading services. The concept of option trading services came into being realizing that not everybody investing money in the stock trading is aware of the manner in which the stock markets operate. The freedom of selling or buying a share of a company would allow you to have a control over your financial investments. But it would always be prudent to take the help of a knowledgeable financial consultant, who knows the tenor of the markets whether local or global.

Any sanguine financial advisor would provide you with all the options that you can have depending upon your own financial standing as well as the percentage that you can afford to spend in building your portfolio. It is important thus that you have the right financial advisor that can provide you with the best option trading services. The presence of internet has further eased the process of finding a good financial advisor. There are many online financial consultants who offer option trading services to their clients to keep them abreast of the latest tidings in the stock markets.

It is a known fact that when the volatility is at high levels and the stop loss point on a particular stock is the same as that of the option, then options are the preferred vehicles. There are two major components of the option quotes. They are the call options and the put options. A contract that allows the holder to buy 100 shares of the underlying stock within a certain time frame is known as the call option, whereas a contract that gives the holder a right to sell a 100 shares of the underlying stock within a certain time frame and at a certain price is called a put option.

Trading in stock options is one of the best ways of making investments. The investment done using the stock options as the vehicle can only keep you in an advantageous position no matter what is the condition of the stock market. Whether the market is on the rise or witnessing a fall, the stock options would never let you down. Thus it is advisable that you take the option trading services from a knowledgeable option trader and reap the benefits that accrue from it.

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Commercial Mortgage Modification

In todays crumbling, commercial real estate market, both borrowers and lenders find themselves in quite a precarious predicament. Borrowers struggle to make their commercial mortgage payments, while lenders are crippled by the increasing number of defaults on commercial property. Right now the best solution to this problem is commercial mortgage modification.

Commercial mortgage modification is the process of renegotiating the terms of a commercial loan. This is done typically by reducing the interest rate or monthly payment on the loan. Other benefits to the borrower may include an extension of the loan term, a forbearance or moratorium on payments, and of course an alternative to foreclosure.

A commercial mortgage modification is about risk to the lender. A lender will only consider a modification if a borrower is in default or at risk of defaulting. The most important thing the lender will look at in determining whether or not to modify a commercial note is cash flow. One very important calculation used in determining cash flow is called the DCR or Debt Coverage Ratio. This ratio is used by the underwriters to determine if a modification can be approved. If a property is breaking even, meaning the income generated is equal to the operating expenses, the DCR would be equal to 1. If commercial property has a positive cash flow, meaning the income the property generates is more than sufficient to cover the mortgage payment and all of the operating expenses, the DCR is greater than 1. If the property is losing money, the DCR would be less than 1. A lender will most likely not modify the commercial note, if the property already has a DCR greater than 1. Commercial lenders writing new commercial loans will most likely require a DCR of 1.25 or greater.

The most common form of payment reduction seen in a commercial mortgage modification is when the lender converts a principal and interest payment to an interest only payment. A lender may consider this form of commercial loan modification to help the borrower improve their cash flow. By only paying the interest on the loan, as opposed to principal and interest, the payment becomes more affordable for the borrower.

However, in extreme circumstances, reducing the mortgage payment to interest only is just not enough for a commercial property owner. If a lender sees that the borrower will still have negative cash flow even after reducing the payment to interest only, they may consider a reduction in the interest rate. Although the interest rate reduction may be temporary, it will help the borrower free up capital and maintain the mortgage payment on time. Although uncommon, lenders have lowered interest rates to as low as 1% even, to avoid an even more costly foreclosure.